The human world is full of diversities. Nothing is left, which does not have diversity: languages, cultures, religions, customs, outfits, lifestyle, even in politics and governing systems humans have diversities. These diversities have been existed throughout the ages and will exist for good. These diversities have become the identity of individual society, state, and country. But, a diversity, which hugely has affected the human existence in the world and sometimes even shook humanity, is the diversity of politics and Government.
Who knows how many millions of people have lost their lives in the tussles of two different political ideologies, in bloody confrontations between rulers and rivals, in religion-based hostilities. The most amazing thing is that one wise monarch or ruler of any country has been not less than evil for neighboring countries or states. One ruler, either it was a monarch or be it dictator, who was kind and generous for own people, the same was turned out to be a monster for other communities or nations. The theory behind this big difference in pursuing two opposite political mindset was two aspects of politics: sovereignty and imperialism.
Sovereignty term uses to describe the state of a regime which works independently and takes decisions without taking cues from an external force. Every ruler, from each type of Government or political ideology, wanted to lead his or her state and country with full sovereignty power in hands. The irony is that the regime which aspired to gain sovereignty to run its own state; that same one adopted imperialism for the rest of the states or countries.
Imperialism is a dazzling example of humans’ unbridled thirst for gaining the gigantic power and accomplishing the sky-high selfishness. Imperialism was put into practice by the stronger countries or states over the deprived countries. Often, it was implemented by triggering the war and obviously, against the wishes of people. For centuries, Great Britain, France, America, and other European countries had run the imperialism and accumulated massive wealth and power.
In common words, a political association of people with the sovereign governing power in hand; who make and apply policies; enforce law and order; control the economy and provide the security to the nation or state; is called Government. The group which forms the Government is made of politically aligned people who share similar political thoughts and philosophy. A government may be lead by one person or by many persons. A sense of unity had produced the idea of living in a community and to raise the community people felt the need for a holistic, systematic arrangement for the welfare of the people. Gradually, as time progressed, in search of an effective and efficient living system, local council and decision making bodies emerged on the grass-root level. Subsequently, the local councils and decision-making bodies grew to the assemblies. Eventually, the assemblies took the shape of the Government. Unfortunately, the spirit of the governing system could not remain intact from the reach of powerful people of the society. The ruling system soon hijacked by the dominant people of the community and gave birth to monarchism.
Monarchism was the first form of Government under which some countries progressed and some deteriorated. People realized that monarchism is not the best system to follow. The dissatisfaction of the people with monarchism resulted in the development of other forms of Government: Oligarchy, Anarchism, Totalitarian, Authoritarian, Autocracy. When the militarism and armaments came in fashion, then the dictatorship emerged. The system, which was made to meet the daily needs and to solve the various troubles of humans, that system grown to the mean of accumulation of power and wealth for some people.
After witnessing the brunt of various types of Government’s regime, once again, people left with no option to brainstorm, and what they came up with were two new forms of Government: Democracy and Communism. However, two political philosophers Cleisthenes from Greece and Karl Marx from Germany, are considered the father of these two forms of ideology, respectively. But, as time progressed, various nations and states customized the democracy and communism according to their wishes before adopting them as their system. In today’s world, democracy and communism are two main political ideologies though the monarchism and dictatorship co-exist.
To streamline the governing procedure, the constitution was made. Most of the countries (not all), have given the governing laws and principles a form of words and compiled in a book which is knows known as the constitution. Describing the constitution an exclusive product of the democracy would be not fair because communism, monarchism and even the dictatorship have also embraced the constitution that too in written form. So, it means the constitution may do strengthen the foundation of the Government, but it does not guarantee prosperity and peace.
Due to the extensive interpersonal diversities and hatred feelings prevailed in the world, politics never have been a straight line. Wavered politics does not let the country stable and secure. A developed nation is considered the product of a stable government and a stable government comes from a strong political party.
A political party is a group of people who share a similar political mindset and ideology. A political party may be or may not be in power. In the corridors of politics, it is commonly said that political criticism acts as a boon for Government. Doing constructive criticism is the prime responsibility of the political party as long as it is not in power. It means, a political party, as an opposition, can help to run the country even being outside of the Government. A constructive criticism brings transparency, create trustworthy ambiance and make Government efficient and effective. That’s why in democratic countries, the opposition is considered a backbone of the nation.