What is Genetics

Genetics is the branch of biology that studies the transfer of physical and biological characteristics from generation to generation. Many scientists believe that the explanation for many genetic problems lies in the genes.

Heredity is the genetic inheritance we received from our ancestors, whether, physical or even diseases. Hence, the explanation of children resembles the father, mother, grandfather, grandmother, uncle, aunt and even more distant relatives.

Another way to observe heredity is by crossing a plain coat of white mouse with a black rat bristling fur. The puppies from this cross will indeed be born black and bristly hair, because of the black rat genes are stronger; however, when these pups reach adulthood, they may have smooth white coat pups. It is due to the mixing of genes they have.

There are currently a lot of research on the genetic code. Scientists believe that the result of these studies, in the future it will be possible to eliminate many genetic diseases that affect many people worldwide.

Major disturbances and changes of genetic origin: Classification of Genetic Diseases

1- monogenic

They are caused by changes or mutations that occur in the DNA sequence of a single gene. Also known as Mendelian disorders.

Examples of conditions:
Sickle Cell anemia
Duchenne Miotómica
Duchene Muscular Dystrophy
Huntington’s Disease
Tay-Sachs disease
phenylketonuria
Cystic fibrosis
hemophilia A
Familial hypercholesterolemia
thalassemia
Marfan’s syndrome
Chromosome 2
Structural and numerical changes occur across a whole chromosome.

Examples of conditions:
Down’s syndrome
trisomies:
18
13
X Cri-du-chat syndrome (cat meows)
Klinefelter Syndrome
Turner Syndrome
Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome
XYY syndrome

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2 – multifactorial

They are caused by combinations of environmental factors and mutations in multiple genes. Also known as Complex or polygenic disorders. The Multifactorial Inheritance is also associated with some hereditary characteristics (fingerprint patterns, height, eye color, skin color).

Examples of conditions:
Alzheimer
Congenital malformations
Congenital heart diseases
Certain types of cancer
diabetes mellitus
Arterial hypertension
Obesity
Would you like to read more about this topic? This book might interest you: Genetics.