This in an excerpt from this book
In recent years it computing developed with great speed. According to scientist Gordon Earl Moore, the number of transistors on a processor would double every 24 months or so. Transistors are the fundamental elements for a processor to perform calculations. Therefore, this prediction known as Moore’s Law means that the processing power of a computer would double every two years.
Regularly see companies like Intel and AMD launch ever faster processors. For this, it is necessary to manipulate portions of the increasingly smaller area. But there is a limit to this. When transistors are beginning to be made with only a few molecules, it is difficult to reduce its size further and thus increase the capacity of our electronics.
Therefore, quantum computing is the science that studies the use of quantum mechanics to perform computational processing.
Security would also benefit from systems using these technologies. In a quantum system, simple observation alters the results of a phenomenon. Imagine if sending a message between two computers using a property of a set of particles. We could send along a security message. If this security message arrives at your destination with a change means that any observer (a cracker or a spy for example) had intercepted the message before it reached its destination. This type of strategy is called Quantum Cryptography. Some banks in Austria already use this kind of technology for secure transmission of information.
The Canadian company D-Wave says it has developed the first quantum computer. This machine search speed processing while keeping the CPU at temperatures close to absolute zero. But many experts do not consider this device as a quantum computer not to use the phenomena of quantum physics directly in the processing activity. Thus the performance of this machine is not much higher than other super computers available in the market.
Quantum Computing proved capable of providing the necessary means to expand our appliances calculation capacity further, but it is still an experimental technology. It will take a long time to this type of technology to be produced in large scale and be available on our computers, tablets, and mobile phones.
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