About this Book

Long before the particular civil rights movement in the United States of America of the time of 1950s & 1960s had started making proper headlines, the response of the black community towards oppression as well as racial inequality was highly under its way. Definitely, as the failed emancipation’s promise in the latter half of the 19th century had given rise to the case of

Jim Crow which was viewed as a series of customs and laws that were responsible for segregation and disfranchising of the black community – it was also responsible for compelling a group of individuals towards launching the efforts for asserting their respective constitutional rights and for improving their given standing in the community. Towards the turning of the century, for instance, the outspoken leader Ida B. Wells had grappled with the most major leading issues of the time: the lynching of the people belonging to the black community.

Through a series of highly analyzed orchestrated attack on the journalist, Wells had almost brought the given form of violence that tended to be racial singlehandedly –this represented as the major trenchant symbolism of the supremacy of the whites –to the headlines of the consciousness of the nation. However, the others were still mobilizing the overall creation of the leading organizations that would be shaping and supporting the fights & movements for the given civil rights. Under this scenario, Marcus Garvey was responsible for forming the Universal Negro Improvement Association during the time of 1917 for the aim of promoting his contention with respect to the fact that the black community should be working towards self-determination: the idea that was responsible for prefiguring the overall power movement of the black community during the time of the 1960s. Similarly, during the time of the 1905, the man named W.E.B Du Bois and several other leaders had resulted into the formation of the famous Niagara Movement for addressing the black grievances. This had led to the immensely influential and reputed NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of the Colored People) along with the legal assaulting of the given discrimination.

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As the early times of the black community and activists were seeking a similar present –a highly equitable society –the respective goals & means were not completely unified, under some cases, their respective efforts towards eliminating the given racial barriers had been in direct opposition to the other. For instance, Booker T. Washington had promoted vocational training along with economic independence as the means of proper tactical response, in portions, towards the southern economy in the field of agriculture. However, the pragmatic approach adopted by Washington was under fire soon as claimed to some predominantly white group during the time of 1895 that under all the things that were purely social, the individuals could be separate as our fingers, however, they were all one just like the hand for the things that involved mutual progress. The critics of Washington, most importantly W.E.B. Du Bois, had denounced the given promotion of segregation as well as the willingness of foregoing the political power of the black community. In comparison to Washington, W.E.B. Du Bois who was a Harvard-educated person of intellect had advocated the complete transformation of the cultural as well as the political life of the black community.

The viewpoints in opposition has been represented in the subsequent lessons that tend to reflect the similar debates that would be informing and shaping the civil rights movement in the United States of America in the later periods. During the same time, these also reveal how a specific cadre of highly committed individuals, even after the profusion of both ideological and tactical differences, these have set the given stage for all the possible assaults against different forms of inequality that have transformed the given racial landscape of the United States of America.

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