This in an excerpt from this book
When the World War I set Europe and the other nations of the world on flames including the American public opinion, soon began under the influence of the war prejudice and propaganda the denouncement of the German army and the Kaiser as they were held responsible for the outbreak of the World War I. However, many writers and historians across the world have failed to give in or join the chorus. The historical sense of many writers and historians have told them that in the present case or in the past, not just country or just one man was solely responsible for the outbreak of such an epidemic and holocaust which left the entire world into shatters and upheavals.
A little study and the speculations of the various diplomatic documents like the White, Yellow, Blue, and Orange pieces of literature which were earlier issued by the English, French, German and Russian Governments; had convinced the writers of the world that these diplomatic documents were not relevant and reliable enough to come to the conclusion of holding Germany and a single person as the sole responsibility of aggravating the warlike situations in the World during the phase of the World War I.
However, the new socialist governments of Austria and Germany in 1919 had published a very complete and reliable collection of diplomatic documents from the secret archives which were related to the diplomatic crisis of July 1914; and seemed reliable enough to provide the information or materials for reaching some tentative point of opinion or conclusion about the possible and immediate causes of the World War I. The American Historical Review which was published during the time of 1920-21 called to the attention of the scholars from worldwide that there was a need to reconsider the opinions or conclusions that were formed during the heat of the battle as to the immediate causes of the World War I and the ones who were responsible for causing it. The publication of more diplomatic documents during this era especially from the sources of the Russian province, along with the refusal of the British and the French governments to issue any completed documents or convincing records of their conduct during the time of July, 1914; there rose a group of writers and literature experts in history who demanded the revision of the clause in the Treaty of Versailles which declared that Germany and some of its allies were responsible for the outbreak of the World War I. Some of the writers especially the anti-Poincare writers or the revisionists in France, the final opinion or the conclusion was in danger of swinging as far as the golden meaning of the historical truth were formerly followed in the path of the great historians.
In the years that led to the outbreak of the World War I; there were five great powers within Europe: Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary, Britain, and France. The list remains unchanged until the late 18th century except for the fact that Prussia is now Germany; the players of the World War I were well used to the game of diplomacy for which alliances were formed for defensive purposes and to turn into aggressive partnerships. The idea of the rapid victory in the war was particularly prevalent in Germany which needed a victory in both the World War I and the Franco-Prussian War as well. The German nation was greatly hungry for immediate success on the international stage rather than on the rivals and it was also more nervous about succumbing in front of the hostile alliances.
There are various reasons for the World War I happening in the first place. Germany had been recently transformed by Bismarck during the 1914-1919 time period. The transformation took place from a relatively minor player to one of the most potential and powerful nations of the world and in continental Europe. But, Germany was a late arrival to the stage of the world where it had to match up with Britain as well. In addition to Britain, there were France and Russia too to prepare the match and relevant competition to Germany. Unlike them, Germany had a great navy, the most tangible symbol, and the great international power.
The nervousness of Germany was increased during the period of the 1890s when the alliances from the great powers of Europe seemed to be slipping through and beyond the control of Germany. Bismarck used to work on the principle of hostility from France which was eager to avenge its loss of Alsace and Lorraine region. Bismarck also maintained a neutral stance from Britain which was the greatest rivalry of France in history. Bismarck, therefore, concentrated his major efforts on forming alliances with the eastern neighbors of Germany which were Russia and Austria-Hungary. He even went on to add Italy – a completely new nation to attain great power and high status within Europe. The Triple Alliance was agreed on 1882 between Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary and it lasted till 1915. The path chosen by Bismarck was not easy at all. Russia and Austria-Hungary had conflicting spheres of interests in the unstable Balkans. As a result of this, while Italy and Austria-Hungary remained constant allies with each other, all the three nations became known as the Central Powers of Europe by 1882. Bismarck had to constantly renew or patch up the alliance with Russia under the pressure of the international events.
The careful structure of the Bismarck’s dismissal crumbled in 1890. The new Kaiser recognized the incompatibility of Austria-Hungary and Russia as allies and broke those alliances with Russia. As a result of this, both France and Russia got equally alarmed by Germany and therefore, began secret negotiations. This resulted in the Franco-Russian alliance of 1894. In 1904, to everyone’s surprise, both Britain and France agreed to an unprecedented Entente Cordiale. Austria-Hungary which was a declining power by now, along with the relatively weaker Italy; now seemed to be the only left allies with Germany also felt that such a conflict was not far away in the future. With all the major nations of the World preparing for such an outcome or the World War I; the role played by Germany was the most significant one.


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