This in an excerpt from this book
The fundamentals of biology beam its searchlight on all the basic principles contained in various aspects of life sciences, like recombinant DNA, genetics, molecular biology and biochemistry. Via the in-depth study of these principles, humans can adequately understand all the basic mechanisms that life entails and then find an anchor for his biological thinking and knowledge, which are all required for full understanding of the various challenges humans encounter in day-to-day lives. These challenges vary from problems with human environmental quality, loss of biodiversity, diseases, and health.
The basic chemical structures of living things relate a great deal to their physical structure. Various cell processes come to play also to give the human being its structure and function as seen on the exterior. Cellular organizations are equally essential, ensuring one cell functions in its place without unwanted interference with another cell and its function. Living processes depend heavily on various metabolic processes, and these processes occur in animals and plants. Humans, being the chief among higher animals, remain the main focus and end point of all biological studies.
Cell division is an integral part of the fundamentals of biology since it forms the basis on which living things grow and develop. Cell division equally forms the basis for genetics, and it is irreversibly associated with both sexual and asexual reproduction processes.
Genetics is more or less a new entrant into biological studies, and its details have reached an advanced stage in recent times, thanks to the many genetic technological processes developed in recent times. Genetics opened human eyes to the processes and studies of evolution, and they are both intertwined and inseparable.
To improve on knowledge related to biological studies, humans have engaged in various laboratory activities and formulated various hypotheses to give human make up a meaning. The laboratory activities culminate to data collection and interpretation, which gave both to inferences and conclusion presented to the world in the form of visual, oral and written forms of communication. Research in the world of biology is an ongoing process since many more secrets about this broad field of study are still left unfolded.
Fundamentals of biology seek to study this course at the level of the cell. It involves in-depth investigation into cellular structures and chemical processes. As hinted earlier, gene expression, cell division, and cell metabolism are also integral parts of the study. The content is more or less about the basic concepts of biology, which form the foundation on which all other biology-related fields of study are built. It must be stated with emphasis that the study of the fundamentals of biology at cellular level deals squarely with the eukaryotic cell, which is the form of cell found in humans, animals, and plants. However, mentions are also made about prokaryotes.
Cell functions in plants and animals are regulated by various molecular processes, which are essential in all multi-cellular organisms. Certain external signals, like electrochemical, molecular and physical signals, are culprits in the production of certain changes in the cell replication, cell behavior, and protein synthesis and gene expression.
This write-up discusses to details the basic or fundamental principles of biology and is divided into various sections for easy understanding. Each section relies on each other to bring to birth a wholesome understanding of what life entails. The reader will learn the basic principles that are common to every living thing. The cell structure and function, genetics, cellular genetics and molecular biology will also be given a mention. The reader will equally learn about the various biology principles and techniques
At the end of this script, the reader should have developed a very broad knowledge about and understanding of the basic structure of the eukaryotic cell, which includes the cells in both plants and animals. The compartments where all the fundamental cellular activities take place will also be discussed. All multicellular organizations have various cellular activities, and this script will identify these cellular activities to details


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