Early Roman Kingdom
The version of ancient Rome can be seen through works of Plutarch, Dionysius of Halicarnassus and Livy who say that Rome was initially ruled by succession of seven kings. As per Varro, another literary genius, 243 years have been accounted for the rule of these seven kings. After which the city was invaded by the Gauls who sacked the city and burnt the city and along with the city burned all the written records.
Romulus was the founder and first king of Rome, he is said to have ruled Rome for 36 years after which he vanished and after a year of gap in the government the Senate which was also founded by Romulus and comprised of noble men, selected Numa Pompilius to be their next king.
After 43 years of peaceful reign by Numa, Rome was then ruled by Tullus Hostilius who preferred war and he reigned for 31 years.
Ancus Marcius was grandson of Numa and took the throne after Tullus. He was calm and peaceful and built many new buildings in the city. He ruled for 25 years before he was succeeded by Lucius Tarquinius Priscus.
Lucius had emigrated from Etruria and Ancus had adopted him as his son. He ruled well and expanded the borders of Rome and added to its treasury. He laid the foundations for Roman Forum and began Roman games. One of the most famous constructions from his reign is the Circus Maximus which is a gigantic stadium for horse racing. He also introduced symbols for civil and military offices. After 38 years of his long rule, he was murdered by one of Ancus’ own son.
Lucius was succeeded by his son-in-law Servius Tullius. He constructed the pomerium around the Seven Hills of Rome. He introduced voting rights and established first census of Rome which segregated Rome into five economic classes. After ruling for 44 years he was murdered by his own daughter Tullia and son-in-law Lucius Tarquinius Superbus.
Lucius Tarquinius Superbus was the seventh king of Rome. He killed his father-in-law and took over the throne. He used violence to rule Rome and disrespected the Roman Senate and the customs of the kingdom. Problems for Superbus began when his son Sextus Tarquinius raped a woman named Lucretia who was the daughter and wife to very influential nobles. Lucretia revealed the story to her father and plead to be given justice before the magistrate, she stabbed herself in front of many people and died in her father’s arms. A revolution led by four men with Lucius Junius Brutus and Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus who was Lucretia’s husband, in the lead, overthrew the king – Lucius Tarquinius Superbus and banished his whole family into an exile. The people were already angry with Tullia who had horrifically murdered her father for the throne. Brutus and Collatinus became the first consuls Roman Repulic.
Would you like to read more about this topic? This book might interest you: Ancient Rome.