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Egypt was home to more greenery than compared to what the lands are today. This is why there is mention of herd grazing in these lands. Hunting was common among the Egyptians which is why animal domestication was common. The nomadic hunters settled down beside the River Nile and took to farming which further gave way to more development of pottery, religion, art and culture, politics and religion.

There were some important cultures which grew in Egypt in this period – Badari, Amratian or Naqada I, Gerzeh or Naqada II and Naqada III. Although the Tasian culture followed the Badari but the similarities among the two cultures was so much that they are taken under one period. Blacktop-ware type of pottery was the speciality of the Badari.

The El-Amra site which is just 120 km south from Badari is where the Amratian culture gets its name from. Although the blacktop pottery have been found a new type of pottery which is referred to as white cross line ware have also been discovered. There were many developments in the Amratian period such as there were mud-brick buildings, cosmetic palettes that have a very simple craftsmanship have also been found.

The foundation of Dynastic period in Egypt was laid in the Gerzean culture which was Naqada II. Gerzeanpottery was painted red with pictures of ships, animals or people along with some geometric shapes which usually resembled the animals.

The handles of the pottery were now wavy and with time they became ornamental. There have evidence found which indicate that the culture was influenced by foreign cultures such as Mesopotamian, Arabian and other civilizations.

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The Naqada III period of Egypt is identical to the time when Egypt was unified. It is in this period that the hieroglyphics was first developed. There were other firsts too such as the first royal cemeteries, first serekhs which were vignettes that comprised of a plan of the royal courtyard and a rough look of the palace and first irrigation.

In 3200 BC there were two pharaohdoms established one was Upper Egypt and the other was Lower Egypt. There is an on-going debate on who united both Upper and Lower Egypt – Menes or Narmer. There is more historical evidence on Narmer having united Egypt however, archaeologists and specialists have their own theories to prove that Menes was the first pharaoh to have united Upper and Lower Egypt.

Would you like to read more about this topic? This book might interest you: Ancient Egypt.

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